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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1959.3/1053
- Individualism, GNP, climate, and pronoun drop : is individualism determined by affluence and climate, or does language play a role?
- Kashima, Emiko S.; Kashima, Yoshihisa
- Affluence and climate are related to individualism, suggesting the importance of the material environment on culture. However, the symbolic environment, as represented by language, may also play a significant role. The effects of gross national product (GNP) per capita, latitude, and pronoun drop (whether the subject of a sentence can be dropped) as variables that tap the material and symbolic environments on Hofstede’s individualism were examined. GNP per capita and latitude had overall positive effects on individualism, but this was moderated by pronoun drop. The effect of economic affluence on culture was greater, but the effect of climate smaller, in the countries whose language does not permit pronoun drop than in those countries where pronouns can be dropped in utterances. A moderating effect of symbolic factors on the material environnment-culture relationship was discussed.
- Publication type
- Journal article
- Research centre
- Swinburne University of Technology. School of Social and Behavioural Sciences
- Journal of cross-cultural psychology, Vol. 34, no. 1 (2003), pp. 125-134
- Publication year
- SAGE Publications Inc.
- pp. 125-134
- Publisher URL
- © 2003 SAGE Publications.