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- Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov states in one-dimensional spin-polarized ultracold atomic Fermi gases
- Liu, Xia-Ji; Hu, Hui; Drummond, P. D.
- We present a systematic study of quantum phases in a one-dimensional spin-polarized Fermi gas. Three comparative theoretical methods are used to explore the phase diagram at zero temperature: the mean-field theory with either an order parameter in a single-plane-wave form or a self-consistently determined order parameter using the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations, as well as the exact Bethe ansatz method. We find that a spatially inhomogeneous Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov phase, which lies between the fully paired Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) state and the fully polarized normal state, dominates most of the phase diagram of a uniform gas. The phase transition from the BCS state to the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov phase is of second order, and therefore there are no phase separation states in one-dimensional homogeneous polarized gases. This is in sharp contrast to the three-dimensional situation, where a phase separation regime is predicted to occupy a very large space in the phase diagram. We conjecture that the prediction of the dominance of the phase separation phases in three dimension could be an artifact of the non-self-consistent mean-field approximation, which is heavily used in the study of three-dimensional polarized Fermi gases. We consider also the effect of a harmonic trapping potential on the phase diagram, and find that in this case the trap generally leads to phase separation, in accord with the experimental observations for a trapped gas in three dimensions. We finally investigate the local fermionic density of states of the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov ansatz. A two-energy-gap structure appears, which could be used as an experimental probe of the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov states.
- Publication type
- Journal article
- Physical Review A, Vol. 76, no. 4 (2007), article no. 043605
- Publication year
- FOR Code(s)
- 0202 Atomic, Molecular, Nuclear, Particle and Plasma Physics; 0204 Condensed Matter Physics; 0205 Optical Physics
- Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer; BCS theory; Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations; Bound states; Electronic states; Energy gap; Fermi gases; Fermi surface; Fermion systems; Mean field theory; Phase diagrams; Phase separation; Quantum field theory; Quantum phases; Spin polarisation
- American Physical Society
- Publisher URL
- Copyright © 2007 The American Physical Society. Published version of this paper reproduced here in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher.
- Full text
- Peer reviewed