Based on the integrable Gaudin model and local density approximation, we discuss the ground state of a one-dimensional trapped Fermi gas with imbalanced spin population, for an arbitrary attractive interaction. A phase separation state, with a polarized superfluid core immersed in an unpolarized superfluid shell, emerges below a critical spin polarization. Above it, coexistence of polarized superfluid matter and a fully polarized normal gas is favored. These two exotic states could be realized experimentally in highly elongated atomic traps, and diagnosed by measuring the lowest density compressional mode. We identify the polarized superfluid as having an Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov structure, and predict the resulting mode frequency as a function of the spin polarization.