We formulate a general multi-mode Gaussian operator basis for fermions, to enable a positive phase-space representation of correlated Fermi states. The Gaussian basis extends existing bosonic phase-space methods to Fermi systems and thus allows first-principles dynamical or equilibrium calculations in quantum many-body Fermi systems. We prove the completeness of the basis and derive differential forms for products with one- and two-body operators. Because the basis satisfies fermionic superselection rules, the resulting phase space involves only c-numbers, without requiring anticommuting Grassmann variables. Furthermore, because of the overcompleteness of the basis, the phase-space distribution can always be chosen positive. This has important consequences for the sign problem in fermion physics.
Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General,
Vol. 39, no. 2 (2006), pp. 269-297