The behavior of the spatial two-particle correlation function is surveyed in detail for a uniform one-dimensional Bose gas with repulsive contact interactions at finite temperatures. Long-, medium-, and short-range effects are investigated. The results span the entire range of physical regimes from ideal gas to strongly interacting and from zero temperature to high temperature (Gross-Pitaevskii) and strongly interacting (Tonks-Girardeau) gases. We present perturbative analytic methods, available at strong and weak couplings, and first-principles numerical results using imaginary time simulations with the gauge-P representation in regimes where perturbative methods are invalid. Nontrivial effects are observed from the interplay of thermally induced bunching behavior versus interaction induced antibunching.