We present transverse momentum distributions of charged hadrons produced in Au + Au collisions at sqrt[SNN]=200 GeV. The spectra were measured for transverse momenta pT from 0.25 to 4.5 GeV/c in a pseudorapidity range of 0.2 < η < 1.4. The evolution of the spectra is studied as a function of collision centrality, from 65 to 344 participating nucleons. The results are compared to data from proton-antiproton collisions and Au + Au collisions at lower RHIC energies. We find a significant change of the spectral shape between proton-antiproton and semi-peripheral Au + Au collisions. Comparing semi-peripheral to central Au + Au collisions, we find that the yields at high pT exhibit approximate scaling with the number of participating nucleons, rather than scaling with the number of binary collisions.