In 1984 scientists in the former Soviet Union called for an ecological civilization. This idea was taken up in 1987 in China by Ye Qianji (2). Subsequently the notion of ecological civilization was promoted by the deputy director of China's State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA), Pan Yue, incorporated into the Central Commission Report to the Communist Party's 17th Convention in November, 2007, and embraced as one of the key elements in its political guidelines.(3) Characterized as the successor to agricultural and industrial civilization, it is now being promoted as a goal for the whole of humanity in order to avert a global ecological disaster. The success or failure of this project to create an ecological civilization could determine whether humanity survives. But what does it mean to create an ecological civilization? What does 'civilization'; mean, and then what would it mean to create an 'ecological' civilization?