Few technologies are problems in themselves. Problems are generated by the interactions between social contexts and technologies. The car, used for urban driveronly commuting has become a serious problem. A comprehensive exploration of the car's biophysical contexts is accompanied by an examination of the social frameworks used to justify its inappropriate use for mass commuting. Socio-economic structures such as ownership are identified as problematic and a public transport levy in place of ticketing, as beneficial. Bike-rail is proposed as the appropriate commuting mode.
Urban Policy and Research,
Vol. 20, no. 3 (2002), pp. 309-312