In June 1986, the Commonwealth Department of Finance released a policy discussion paper which proposed that financial targets and dividend payments be required of Commonwealth Business Enterprises. A major purpose of our paper is to examine the economic rationale of financial targets and divident requirements for such enterprises. The Department of Finance discussion paper does not specify details of the proposed financial targets and dividend requirements, nor of how they would be measured; these are presumably being considered. Thus another major purpose of our paper is to assist in this consideration. It seeks to do this by examining the various approaches to the determination of financial targets, including accounting methods and their financial implications. In particular, the paper assesses Victoria's approach to, and experience with, the use of financial targets and dividend requirements for that state's public enterprises based on "Rate of Return Reporting" (a version of Current Cost Accounting).