We present high time resolution observations of single pulses from the Vela pulsar (PSR B0833-45) made with a baseband recording system at observing frequencies of 660 and 1413 MHz. We have discovered two startling features in the 1413 MHz single-pulse data. The first is the presence of giant micropulses that are confined to the leading edge of the pulse profile. One of these pulses has a peak flux density in excess of 2500 Jy, more than 40 times the integrated pulse peak. The second new result is the presence of a large-amplitude Gaussian component on the trailing edge of the pulse profile. This component can exceed the main pulse in intensity but is switched on only relatively rarely. Fluctuation spectra reveal a possible periodicity in this feature of 140 pulse periods. Unlike the rest of the profile, this component has low net polarization and emits predominantly in the orthogonal mode. This feature appears to be unique to the Vela pulsar. We have also detected microstructure in the Vela pulsar for the first time. These same features are present in the 660 MHz data. We suggest that the full width of the Vela pulse profile might be as large as 10 ms but that the conal edges emit only rarely.