In the present study, nano- and macro-scale characterisations on the mechanical properties of bovine cortical bones have been performed by using nanoindentation and conventional compressive tests. Nanoindentation results showed that the elastic modulus for the osteons and the interstitial lamellae in the longitude direction were 24.7 ± 2.5 GPa and 30.1 ± 2.4 GPa. As it’s difficult to distinguish osteons from interstitial lamellae in the transverse direction, the average elastic modulus for cortical bovine bone in the transverse direction was 19.8 ± 1.6 GPa. Significant differences were found in the modulus values between different microstructures of bone tissue and in different testing direction. It was found that the elastic modulus of bone bovine material in nano-level was higher than that in macro-level. The elastic modulus and ultimate stress of large bone samples were 12.5 ± 1.9 GPa and 195 ± 19 MPa respectively from the compression test.