The postmodern condition is characterized not only by suspicion of meta-narratives, but by a depreciation of all narratives. Before WWII, Walter Benjamin noted that information was displacing stories. Since then narratives have steadily lost status and, more recently, have even been attacked. There is now a crisis of narrative in novels, while in film, narrative is being subordinated to images. Literary theorists have reinforced this crisis by "deconstructing" discourses to undermine their cognitive claims. More significantly, history has been in a crisis for some time, with both historians and philosophers questioning the relation between narrative coherence and life as it is lived.