A non-contact determination of thermal diffusivity and spatial distribution of temperature on tens-of-micrometers scale is demonstrated by thermal imaging. Temperature localization and a heat flow have been in situ monitored with ∼ 10 ms temporal resolution in Kapton polymer films structured by femtosecond laser pulses. The structured regions can localize temperature and create strong thermal gradients of few degrees over tens-of-micrometers (∼ 0.1 K/μm). This is used to induce an anisotropy in a heat transport. Temperature changes on the order of ∼ 0.1°C were reliably detected and spatial spreading by diffusion was monitored using Fourier analysis. Application potential, miniaturization prospects, and emissivity changes induced by laser structuring of materials are discussed.