There are a number of agents which are believed to impact on metabolic functions which may ultimately impact on neuronal cell survival and cognitive function. Aging is characterized by a progressive deterioration in physiological functions and metabolic processes. Regimes that buffer intracellular energy levels may impede the progression of the neurodegenerative process. This chapter focuses on some of the metabolic agents that may prove to be effective in combating neurodegeneration and lead to better cognitive aging through the life span. The metabolic agents specifically focused on in this chapter are glucose and oxygen, pyruvate, creatine, and L-carnitine. Each of these agents is directly responsible for generating adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the molecular unit of currency of intracellular energy transfer. Their roles as cognitive agents are explored.