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Home List of Titles Kava hepatotoxicity in traditional and modern use: the presumed Pacific kava paradox hypothesis revisited
Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1959.3/214228
- Kava hepatotoxicity in traditional and modern use: the presumed Pacific kava paradox hypothesis revisited
- Teschke, Rolf; Sarris, Jerome; Schweitzer, Isaac
- Kava, a Pacific herb consumed worldwide for medicinal, recreational and cultural purposes, has been associated with rare hepatotoxicity, and there is currently a critical need to determine this causation. The previously proposed Pacific kava paradox was based on the theory that kava hepatotoxicity was not observed following use of traditional aqueous extracts in the Pacific region, but was restricted to use of Western acetonic and ethanolic extracts. Subsequent cases analyzed by the World Health Organization and published case reports revealed that traditional aqueous extracts used in New Caledonia, Australia, the USA and Germany may also be hepatotoxic; thus, there is no longer a basis to sustain the previously proposed Pacific kava paradox. It appears that the primary cause of toxicity may reside in the time before the preparation of the various kava extracts, possibly attributed to poor quality of the raw material caused by mould hepatotoxins. Rigorous testing of kava raw material is urgently advised, in addition to Pan-Pacific kava manufacturing quality standards.
- Publication type
- Journal article
- Research centre
- Swinburne University of Technology. Faculty of Life and Social Sciences. Centre for Human Psychopharmacology
- British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Vol. 73, no. 2 (Feb 2012), pp. 170-174
- Publication year
- FOR Code(s)
- 1115 Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences
- Drug-induced liver injury; Herb-induced liver injury; Herbal hepatotoxicity; Kava; Kava hepatotoxicity; Piper methysticum
- Wiley-Blackwell Publishing
- Publisher URL
- Copyright © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology copyright © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.
- Additional information
- The authors acknowledge support from Integria Healthcare.
- Peer reviewed