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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1959.3/220600
- The design of counter current metallurgical reactors
- Brooks, Geoffrey A.; Treverrow, A.; Worner, H. K.
- The work by H. K. Worner and co-workers at CRA in the 1960s, and early 1970s, established that molten metals could be refined continuously utilising counter current flow of metal and slag. Worner also demonstrated that counter current refining could produce highly refined metal products. These developments coincided with the advent of high intensity metallurgical reactors in both the ferrous and non-ferrous industries (e.g. BaS, Q-BOP and later Sirosmelt) that utilised high levels of gas injection to produce rapid stirring and very fast reaction. These new generation of high intensity metallurgical reactors allowed high tonnage rates through relatively small volume vessels. Whilst, it is well known that the counter current flow of reacting phases offers the potential of efficient mass transfer and high purity products, the application of counter current reactors to molten metal/slag systems has been criticized on the basis that they suffer from either low intensity or, alternately, from poor refining due to excessive dispersion. These criticisms relate to the balance between intensity and the refining capacity of a reactor. That is, whilst high levels of mixing transversely to the direction of flow promotes high mass transfer, longitudinal mixing (dispersion) is detrimental to refining. Of course, mixing in one direction invariably leads to mixing in other directions, thus creating a playoff between high mass transfer and excessive dispersion. This balance between intensity and refining has been the subject of recent studies overseas, and at the University of Wollongong, using cold modelling techniques to evaluate the effect of mixing on dispersion in a counter current refining launder. These studies have shown that for a given geometry and mixing regime, dispersion decreases with increasing flow of liquid phases. This means that whilst high mass transfer cannot be achieved in a refining launder without sacrificing the degree of refinement, there is no impediment to achieving high productivity through such a system, in fact, high through puts may favour good refining. Thus, it may be possible to match a high productivity smelting operation with a equally productive counter current refining stage.
- Publication type
- Conference paper
- Proceedings of the Howard Worner International Symposium on Injection in Pyrometallurgy, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 01-03 July 1996 / M. Nilmani and T. Lehner (eds.), pp. 59-71
- Publication year
- Countercurrent processes; Dimensions; Dispersion; Flow rate; Gas injection; Mass transfer; Mattes; Melting; Mixing; Modelling; Process variables; Refining; Slag; Smelting; WORCRA technology
- The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society
- 9780873393416, 0873393414
- Publisher URL
- Copyright © 1998.
- Peer reviewed