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- Coherence and collective oscillations of a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate
- Egorov, Mikhail
- Ultracold atoms and Bose-Einstein condensates represent a burgeoning and ever exciting area of research which has produced numerous breakthroughs in the last 15 years. Ultracold atoms at nano-Kelvin temperatures, isolated in atom traps from the hot, room temperature environment, exhibit ultimate quantum properties and can serve as pure samples for testing quantum mechanics and performing precision measurements. The research described in this thesis investigates, both theoretically and experimentally, the coherence and dynamical evolution of a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). The studies are performed on the |1 › ≡ F = 1,mF = −1 › and |2 › ≡ |F = 2,mF = +1 › hyperfine ground states of a 87Rb BEC trapped on an atom chip. Conventional understanding has been that the fringe contrast in interferometric experiments on a BEC is limited by the mean-field dephasing due to strong interatomic interactions which lead to inhomogeneous collisional shifts. We have discovered using Ramsey interferometry a mean-field driven self-rephasing effect in a trapped twocomponent BEC. When combined with a spin-echo technique, we find that the selfrephasing leads to a coherence time of 2.8 s, the longest ever recorded for an interacting BEC. Secondly, we have developed a new technique based on periodic collective oscillations for precision measurements of the interspecies and intraspecies scattering lengths and derived an analytic mean-field theory for the phase and density dynamics in the twocomponent BEC. This technique has been applied to the measurements of the scattering lengths for the two components, |1i and |2i, in 87Rb with a precision of 0.016%. Additionally, the two-body loss coefficients for these states have been measured. Thirdly, we have developed and applied a new, interferometric method for calibrating the detection system, in order to determine the total atom number precisely for Ramsey interferometric measurements. The calibration coefficient is found to be in a good agreement with that obtained using a conventional calibration technique based on the critical BEC temperature. Finally, we have detected predicted RF-induced Feshbach resonances by monitoring changes in the two-body loss coefficients in the two-component BEC. Conventional Feshbach resonances have been used in many works to tune the s-wave interactions; however, there is no achievable magnetic Feshbach resonance for magnetically trappable states of 87Rb. The RF-induced resonances which we have detected can provide a way to tune the scattering lengths which is important for interferometry and entanglement experiments. The positions of the resonances may provide useful information for predicting the atomic scattering properties of 87Rb.
- Publication type
- Thesis (PhD)
- Research centre
- Swinburne University of Technology. Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Sciences. Centre for Atom Optics and Ultrafast Spectroscopy
- Publication year
- Australasian Digital Theses collection
- Publisher URL
- Copyright © 2012 Mikhail Egorov.