The development of more advanced and effective vaccines is of great interest in modern medicine. These new-generation vaccines, based on recombinant proteins or DNA, are often less reactogenic and immunogenic than traditional vaccines. Thus, there is an urgent need for the development of new and improved adjuvants. Besides many other immunostimulatory components, the bacterial ghost (BG) system is currently under investigation as a potent vaccine delivery system with intrinsic adjuvant properties. BGs are nonliving cell envelope preparations from Gram-negative cells, devoid of cytoplasmic contents, while their cellular morphology and native surface antigenic structures remain preserved. Owing to the particulate nature of BGs and the fact that they contain many well known immune-stimulating compounds, BGs have the potential to enhance immune responses against ghost-delivered target antigens.
Expert Review of Vaccines,
Vol. 6, no. 2 (Apr 2007), pp. 241-253