Plasma immersion ion implantation has a potential advantage over conventional line-of-sight ion implantation in being able to provide a uniform dose over a nonplanar surface. Operating regimes are different for each process leading to different surface modification characteristics. Comparisons have been made of the two techniques for mild steel, tungsten carbide and graphitic carbons. For nitrogen implanted mild steel, the PI to the power of three process gives a nitrogen depth distribution at least an order of magnitude greater than in CI squared. In graphitic carbons, CI squared is more effective in producing radiation damage and improving resistance to wear.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms,
Vol. 80-81, part 1 (Jun 1993), pp. 262-266