The cross-sections of the 14N(3He, pi)16O (i = 1,2,3,4,5,7) and 14N(3He,α0)13N reactions have been measured for 3He incident energies between 1.6 and 2.8 MeV. These reactions offer an alternative to the 14N(d,p)15N and 14N(d,α)12C nuclear reactions for profiling of nitrogen in the first few microns below the surface. The technique has been applied to tool steels treated by Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation, where treatment at elevated temperatures leads to diffusion of the nitrogen to depths well beyond the implantation range. Simultaneous measurement of the carbon profile can be made using the 12C(3He,p)14N reactions.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms,
Vol. 84, no. 4 (Mar 1994), pp. 415-420