Numerical analysis based on the finite element method allowed evaluation of conditions for crack development in oxide scale during compression in hot metal forming, particularly in the hot rolling of steel. In addition to cracks formed ahead of contact with the roll, through-thickness cracks can also occur under roll pressure within the roll gap. The modeling has revealed that sometimes cracking that started at the uppermost oxide scale layer was stopped at the thin oxide scale layer nearest to the stock surface. Alternatively, crack closure within the roll gap was possible at high temperature in places where both viscous sliding and ductile behavior of the scale were more pronounced. Many aspects of the modeling are supported by experimental observations.
AIP conference proceedings: materials processing and design: modelling, simulation and applications: proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Numerical Methods in Industrial Forming Processes (NUMIFORM 2004), Columbus, Ohio, United States, 13-17 June 2004,
Vol. 712, pp. 1961-1966