Success rates of 60-80% have been shown for temporal lobectomy surgery in the alleviation of formerly intractable epileptic seizures. Although this success rate is good in terms of seizure removal, after-effects are reported to include depression and difficulties in coping with a new, non-epileptic identity in a significant minority of cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate psychosocial (non-neurological) factors associated with post-surgery adjustment in a sample of individuals who had experienced temporal lobectomy. All patients from the Melbourne Epilepsy Centre (Australia) receiving temporal lobe surgery for epilepsy in the last 7 years, and who were at least 4 months post-surgery, were surveyed (N=93). The response rate was 61% (N = 57; 20 males, 37 females; ages 20 - 64 years; 4 - 77 months post-surgery). Results indicated an overwhelming improvement in psychosocial adjustment post-surgery. Post-surgery adjustment and satisfaction with surgery were correlated with perceived preparation for surgery and perceived control over surgery .In terms of personality/coping variables, post-operative adjustment was associated with optimism, lower rates of non-productive coping (e.g.,letting off steam, blaming oneself) and lower levels of 'powerful others' health locus of control. Satisfaction with surgery was associated with internal health locus of control and optimism. Perceived disadvantages of the surgery most strongly linked with poorer adjustment were worries about medication and perceived negative effects on family and social relationships.