In this paper, a series of high-resolution N-body simulations is presented in which the equations of motion have been changed to account for modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND). It is shown that a low-Ω0 MONDian model with an appropriate choice for the normalization σ8 can lead to clustering properties at redshift z= 0 similar to the commonly accepted (standard) Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model. However, such a model shows no significant structures at high redshift, with only very few objects present beyond z > 3 that can be readily ascribed to the low Ω0 value adopted. The agreement with ΛCDM at redshift z= 0 is driven by the more rapid structure evolution in MOND. Moreover, galaxy formation appears to be more strongly biased in MONDian cosmologies. Within the current implementation of MOND, density profiles of gravitationally bound objects at z= 0 can still be fitted by the universal Navarro, Frenk & White (NFW) profile, but MOND haloes are less clumpy.