The sex steroid hormone, estrogen, has been proposed to be protective against schizophrenia. This study examined the effects of estrogen treatment on modulation of prepulse inhibition (PPI) by the serotonin-1A (5-HT1A) receptor partial agonist, buspirone. PPI is a model of sensorimotor gating, which is deficient in schizophrenia and other mental illnesses. A total of I I healthy women were tested following four acute treatment conditions: placebo, buspirone (Buspan 5 mg), estradiol (Estrofem; 2mg), and combined buspirone and estradiol. Electromyogram activity was measured across three interstimulus intervals (ISI): 30, 60, and 120 ms. There was no significant effect of either drug treatment on startle amplitude or habituation. At 120 ms ISI, buspirone caused a significant disruption of PPI and pretreatment with estrogen prevented this disruption. Estrogen treatment, administered in the appropriate experimental conditions, prevented PPI deficits induced by S-HT1A receptor activation and may therefore also play a protective role in sensorimotor gating deficits in schizophrenia.