Selenium-polypyrrole core-shell nanoparticles are fabricated by an in-situ polymerization process and functionalized with transferrin for targeting and imaging of human cervical cancer cells. The shell thickness and chemical composition of the as-synthesized particles can be manipulated by controlling the precursor concentration. The presence of the polymer layer can greatly increase the thermal stability of the selenium nanoparticles. The presence of transferrin molecules on the surface of the core-shell nanoparticles can significantly enhance their cellular uptake. The tranferrin-conjugated core-shell nanoparticles can be potentially used for the targeting and imaging of cancer cells.