This report sets out to examine available evidence of actual consumer behaviour in the telecommunications market and analyse the implications of such behaviour for policy and regulation in the consumer interest. It seeks to identify specific measures for consumer protection and empowerment in telecommunication markets. The report has a particular focus on ex ante regulation of the telecommunications sector, but also considers other measures for enhancing consumer empowerment and consumer protection, that do not necessarily involve regulation. The report also discusses influences on switching decisions and examines the evidence that is available about actual consumer decision-making behaviour in telecommunications markets. The report concludes with an examination of the implications of the analysis for consumer policy and regulation.