Oxygen steelmaking remains the dominant process for producing steel in the world. Since the invention of the process in the early 1950s several variations of the process have been developed but the great majority of the operating vessels in the world today remain top blown vessels, as per the original process developed by Voest Alpine. In the various top blown processes, the position of the lance is used to manipulate the kinetics of the reactions in the process and the level of foaming in the vessel. It is also common for inert gas to be injected in the bottom of the vessel through tuyeres to assist in controlling the process and there is strong evidence that towards the end of the blow, bottom stirring is most useful in improving decarburisation, as mass transfer in the bath is thought to limit the that reaction.
Proceedings of the Iron and Steel Technology Conference (AISTech 2017), Nashville, Tennessee, United States, 8 May-11 May 2017, Vol. 2, pp. 1253-1260
Association for Iron and Steel Technology, AISTECH
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