This study investigated the durability properties of concrete containing nano-silica at dosages of 0.3% and 0.9%, respectively. Due to the nano-filler effect and the pozzolanic reaction, the microstructure became more homogeneous and less porous, especially at the interfacial transition zone (ITZ), which led to reduced permeability. Tests on the durability properties verified the beneficial effects of nano-silica. The channels for harmful agents through the cement composites were partially filled and blocked. The pore size distribution also indicated that the large capillary pores were refined by the nano-silica, due to the combined contribution of the nano-filler effect and the pozzolanic reaction.
Implementation of Routine Outcome Measures to assess clinical and mental health functioning has become common practice since the early 1990’s. However, concern has been expressed about the use of these tools with forensic mental health populations. Over a series of four studies, this thesis examined the outcome measures that are currently mandated for use within forensic mental health settings in Victoria, Australia. These tools were compared with a series of forensic-specific tools to identify which were most useful for this task. The findings of this thesis have significant implications for forensic mental health services internationally.
Abstract not available.
This study investigates the use of Graphene Nanoplatelets (GNP) in cement composite to quantify the material damage extent. The damage sensing capability of this new cement composite is demonstrated by experimentally measuring the electric potential across prisms with known notch depth and comparing it with finite element simulations. Meanwhile, the damage extent is directly related to the change in electric potential based on a mathematical analogy between the electrostatic field and the elastostatic field under anti-plane shear loading. It is shown that the fractional change in electric potential arising from damage is equivalent to the fractional change in elastic compliance, which can be exploited for structural health evaluation.
The effect of particle size on alkali-silica reaction (ASR) was investigated to clarify the difference in long-term ASR expansions in mortars using recycled green and brown glass as fine aggregates. Test results revealed that green particles of 1.18 and 2.36 mm showed the highest reactivity while the other sizes resulted in relatively low ASR expansions. Brown glass less than 2.36 mm did not result in large ASR expansion. Furthermore, different ASR suppressors were explored to suppress ASR expansion in mortar using 1.18 mm green glass particles. These included supplementary cementitious materials, steel fiber reinforcement and lithium compounds.
The pozzolanic reactivity of waste glass powder was experimentally studied at cement replacement levels of 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60% by weight. Results revealed that the concrete compressive strength was not decreased by the cement substitution after 28 days because of the pozzolanic reaction between glass powders and cement hydration products, if the replacement is below 30%. Also, the resistance to chloride ion and water penetration continuously increases with increasing glass powder content up to 60% cement replacement. At 60% replacement level, the electrical resistivity and water penetration depth were reduced by 95% and 80%, respectively, while the compressive strength was maintained as 85%. These improvements in durability properties are due to the refined microstructures, particularly at the interfacial transition zone. Pore size distribution was measured to confirm the refinement in the capillary pores, which partially block the pathways for water and chloride ions. This study also demonstrates that high…
The thesis considers the development of legislative and administrative structures for Victorian rural water governance, and how their origins constrained the institutional development of water supply policy thereafter. It is focused on the self-reinforcing nature of policy choices and understanding how subsequent decision makers are influenced by the cultures, norms and practices that are unique to the institution. It offers the first comprehensive account of how the institutional structure concerning rural water supply governance in Victoria influenced the evolution of policy. Through this analysis, it offers an important insight into many issues concerning the ongoing water policy debate in Australia.
Waste glass may be used in concrete provided that the potential deleterious expansion caused by alkali-silica reaction (ASR) could be mitigated. In this study, the influence of glass content, color and particle size on ASR expansion of mortar was determined by the accelerated mortar bar method. Two approaches to control ASR expansion were investigated for green, brown and clear glass sand mortar. They were: (1) by replacing cement with pozzolans, that is, 30% fly ash, 60% GGBS, 10% silica fume, or 20% glass powder; (2) by adding a suppressor, that is, plain steel fibers, and lithium chloride and lithium carbonate compounds. Test results showed that the ASR expansion increased with higher glass content in the case of clear glass sand mortar, but would decrease with increasing content for green and brown glass sand mortar. The ASR expansion also decreased with smaller glass particle size, regardless of glass color. Fly ash and GGBS were the most effective in mitigating ASR expansion, followed by silica fume, st…
Approximately 1.5% of individuals in western countries have Complex Communication Needs, meaning that they lack the spoken word skills needed for their daily communication. Therapeutic methods, called Augmentative and Alternative Communication, exist to help these people, but the use of such techniques is typically problematic.
The identification of where communication breakdowns occur is one of the major challenges within this unique environment. Having a tool that allows users to identify these breakdowns could provide a means to address this issue. This thesis presents literature and empirical research that investigates these challenges, and a prototype tool intended to identify communication breakdowns.
Leadership research has grown into two opposing approaches, the scientific approach and the critical approach. The first is focused on leadership, the second on the leaders. For reasons of practicality, they will be described as the leadership-centric and the leader-centric approach, respectively. Each of the two approaches is characterised by two different perspectives: leadership-centric research highlights science and process; leader-centric research deals with the leader using cognitive faculties and drawing on cultural practices. This opposition has created an unproductive gap in leadership scholarship. The present article focuses on how to reduce that gap by bridging some of the differences that currently undermine scholarship. The concept of habits is used to support an argument in favour of leadership as a social phenomenon. The main idea is that a social phenomenon involves both social interactions happening in everyday shared knowledge and intentionality that influences agents’ experiences. By borro…