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The sugar content of soft drinks in Australia, Europe and the United States

Abstract not available.

Author: Varsamis, Pia, Larsen, Robyn N., Dunstan, David W., Jennings, Garry L....
Publication year: 2017
Publication type: Journal article
Status: Live|Last updated:July 21, 2017 4:32 PM
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A new approach for determining resilient moduli of marginal pavement base materials using the staged repeated load CBR test method

The selection of marginal materials to construct workable and durable pavement base materials requires an understanding of their resilient moduli properties. Empirical formulations have been developed previously based on quality quarried material with known performance-based behaviour. However, in recent years, there has been an increasing demand to use locally available marginal materials, which do not necessarily meet road authority specification requirements; hence it is imperative to evaluate the performance of these non-standard materials. In this study, the geotechnical properties of two marginal materials, namely limestone (Ls) and sandstone (Ss), were evaluated and compared with a high-quality rhyolite (Rh) crushed rock. In order to improve the performance of the marginal materials, each of Ls and Ss was blended with 20% Rh and 50% Rh. The geotechnical properties of individual and blended materials which were investigated included: particle size distribution, particle density, Atterberg limits, Los An…

Author: Haghighi, Hamed, Arulrajah, Arul, Mohammadinia, Alireza, Horpibulsuk, ...
Publication year: 2017
Publication type: Article in Press
Status: Live|Last updated:July 21, 2017 4:32 PM
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Lessons learned from the Nepal earthquake 2015

Nepal is one of the most earthquake-prone regions in the world as it lies at the boundary of the actively converging Indo-Australian plate and Eurasian Plate. Most of the infrastructures in Nepal were constructed by individuals based on their own needs and budget without consulting engineers, and several studies have shown that many of these structures are likely to be inadequate in resisting earthquake forces. Though an earthquake design code is present in Nepal, it is not mandatory in every part of the country and people do not follow it properly even where it is mandatory. This paper presents a summary of the reconnaissance survey of a major earthquake of magnitude 7.8 (on 25th of April 2015) with epicentre in Gorkha District in Nepal, followed by a series of aftershocks including magnitude of 7.3 on the 12th of May 2015. This has resulted in 8969 casualties to date and about 900,000 houses and temples were damaged (partially and completely) leaving thousands of people homeless. Problems associated with th…

Author: Pokharel, Tilak, Goldsworthy, Helen Margaret
Publication year: 2017
Publication type: Journal article
Status: Live|Last updated:July 21, 2017 4:32 PM
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On-chip generation of high-dimensional entangled quantum states and their coherent control

Optical quantum states based on entangled photons are essential for solving questions in fundamental physics and are at the heart of quantum information science 1 . Specifically, the realization of high-dimensional states (D-level quantum systems, that is, qudits, with D > 2) and their control are necessary for fundamental investigations of quantum mechanics 2 , for increasing the sensitivity of quantum imaging schemes 3 , for improving the robustness and key rate of quantum communication protocols 4 , for enabling a richer variety of quantum simulations 5 , and for achieving more efficient and error-tolerant quantum computation 6 . Integrated photonics has recently become a leading platform for the compact, cost-efficient, and stable generation and processing of non-classical optical states 7 . However, so far, integrated entangled quantum sources have been limited to qubits (D = 2) 8-11 . Here we demonstrate on-chip generation of entangled qudit states, where the photons are created in a coherent superpos…

Author: Kues, Michael, Reimer, Christian, Roztocki, Piotr, Cortes, Luis Romero...
Publication year: 2017
Publication type: Journal article
Status: Live|Last updated:July 21, 2017 4:32 PM
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Simultaneous Characterization of Sympathetic and Cardiac Arms of the Baroreflex through Sequence Techniques during Incremental Head-Up Tilt

We propose a sympathetic baroreflex (sBR) sequence method for characterizing sBR from spontaneous beat-to-beat fluctuations of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and diastolic arterial pressure (DAP). The method exploits a previously defined MSNA variability quantifying the fluctuations of MSNA burst rate. The method is based on the detection of MSNA and DAP sequences characterized by the contemporaneous DAP increase and MSNA decrease or vice versa. The percentage of sBR sequences (SEQ%sBR) was taken as an indication of the degree of sBR solicitation and the average slope of the regression lines in the (DAP, MSNA) plane was taken as sBR sensitivity (sBRSSEQ) and expressed in bursts.s−1.mmHg−1. sBRSSEQ was compared to a more traditional estimate based on the baroreflex threshold analysis (sBRSBTA). An incremental head-up tilt protocol, carried out in 12 young healthy subjects (age: 20–36 yr, median = 22.5 yr, 9 females) sequentially tilted at 0, 20, 30, 40, 60° table inclinations, was utilized to set the…

Author: Marchi, Andrea, Bari, Vlasta, De Maria, Beatrice, Esler, Murray, Lambe...
Publication year: 2016
Publication type: Journal article
Status: Live|Last updated:July 21, 2017 4:32 PM
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Calibrated variability of muscle sympathetic nerve activity during graded head-up tilt in humans and its link with noradrenaline data and cardiovascular rhythms

Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) variability is traditionally computed through a low-pass filtering procedure that requires normalization. We proposed a new beat-to-beat MSNA variability computation that preserves dimensionality typical of an integrated neural discharge (i.e., bursts per unit of time). The calibrated MSNA (cMSNA) variability technique is contrasted with the traditional uncalibrated MSNA (ucMSNA) version. The powers of cMSNA and ucMSNA variabilities in the low-frequency (LF, from 0.04 to 0.15 Hz) band were computed with those of the heart period (HP) of systolic and diastolic arterial pressure (SAP and DAP, respectively) in seven healthy subjects (age, 20–28 years; median, 22 years; 5 women) during a graded head-up tilt. Subjects were sequentially tilted at 0°, 20°, 30°, 40°, and 60° table inclinations. The LF powers of ucMSNA and HP variabilities were expressed in normalized units (LFnu), whereas all remaining spectral markers were expressed in absolute units. We found that 1) the LF …

Author: Marchi, Andrea, Bari, Vlasta, De Maria, Beatrice, Esler, Murray, Lambe...
Publication year: 2016
Publication type: Journal article
Status: Live|Last updated:July 21, 2017 4:32 PM
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The functional and clinical outcomes of exercise training following a very low energy diet for severely obese women: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

Background: Clinical practice guidelines globally recommend lifestyle modification including diet and exercise training as first-line treatment for obesity. The clinical benefits of exercise training in adults with obesity is well-documented; however, there is no strong evidence for the effectiveness of exercise training for weight loss in class II and class III obesity. The purpose of the randomised controlled trial described in this protocol article is to examine the effect of exercise training, in addition to a very low energy diet (VLED), in clinically severe obese women for changes in body composition, physical function, quality of life, and markers of cardiometabolic risk. Methods/Design: Sixty women, aged 18–50 years with a body mass index (BMI) greater than 34.9 kg.m2 and at least one obesity-related co-morbidity, will be recruited for this 12-month study. Participants will be randomised to either exercise plus energy restriction (n = 30), or energy restriction alone (n = 30). All participants will fo…

Author: Miller, Clint T., Fraser, Steve F., Selig, Steve E., Rice, Toni, Grima...
Publication year: 2016
Publication type: Journal article
Status: Live|Last updated:July 21, 2017 4:32 PM
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Effects of surface roughness and bond enhancing techniques on flexural performance of cfrp/concrete composites

This paper reports a detailed test programme conducted on enhancing the flexural performance of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) strengthened reinforced concrete beams to ensure prolonged composite action between CFRP laminate and concrete. The effects of surface preparation and alternative bonding techniques on the composite performance were investigated. In this regards, a total of 28 small-scale CFRP strengthened and non-strengthened reinforced concrete beams were tested using the three-point bending test method. This study clearly shows the importance of surface preparation and level of roughness on bond performance of CFRP/Concrete composites. The results also indicate the better performance in CFRP/epoxy/Polyester mesh hybrid arrangement when compare with CFRP strengthened concrete beams.

Author: Ariyachandra, M. R. E. F., Gamage, J. C. P. H., Al-Mahaidi, Riadh, Kal...
Publication year: 2017
Publication type: Article in Press
Status: Live|Last updated:July 21, 2017 4:32 PM
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Assessment of residual strength of concrete girders rehabilitated using NSM CFRP with cementitious adhesive made with graphene oxide after exposure to fatigue loading

This paper presents the residual strength of reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened and repaired by using near-surface mounted (NSM) carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) with innovative high-strength self-compacting non-polymer cementitious adhesive (IHSSC-CA) and epoxy adhesive after being subjected to fatigue loading. Cementitious materials and graphene oxide were used to synthesise the IHSSC-CA. Ten full-scale beams were manufactured and tested under four-point loading with different loading histories. Five beams were tested under monotonic loading up to failure, and another five beams were then tested under fatigue loading at service load levels up to failure or 3 million cycles, whichever happened first. The fatigue load range and frequency used in this study for testing the beams were designed to simulate the typical fatigue loading and frequency of an actual RC bridge girder under service loading conditions. The effect of fatigue loading was determined by comparing the performance of beams befor…

Author: Al-Saadi, Nihad Tareq Khshain, Mohammed, Alyaa, Al-Mahaidi, Riadh
Publication year: 2017
Publication type: Journal article
Status: Live|Last updated:July 21, 2017 4:32 PM
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Phase morphology, mechanical, dynamic mechanical, crystallization, and thermal degradation properties of PP and PP/PS blends modified with SEBS elastomer

Binary and ternary blends comprised of polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS) and polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polystyrene (SEBS) were prepared. The effect of phase composition of minor components on the morphology, mechanical, viscoelastic, crystallization, and thermal degradation properties was studied. Binary blends exhibited inferior properties, typical of immiscible and incompatible multi-phase systems and showed matrix-droplet phase morphologies. Ternary blends, especially those with greater concentration of SEBS minor phase, exhibited interesting properties. Scanning electron micrographs of SEBS compatibilized PP/PS blends, did not show any PS particle pulling out of the PP matrix, indicating good compatibility of SEBS with PP/PS blends. Dynamic mechanical analysis also supported the heterogeneous phase structure of the blends. Thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry showed that addition of PS and SEBS decreased the thermal stability of PP marginally, but shows sligh…

Author: Parameswaranpillai, Jyotishkumar, Jose, Seno, Siengchin, Suchart, Hame...
Publication year: 2017
Publication type: Journal article
Status: Live|Last updated:July 21, 2017 4:32 PM
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