Leadership research has grown into two opposing approaches, the scientific approach and the critical approach. The first is focused on leadership, the second on the leaders. For reasons of practicality, they will be described as the leadership-centric and the leader-centric approach, respectively. Each of the two approaches is characterised by two different perspectives: leadership-centric research highlights science and process; leader-centric research deals with the leader using cognitive faculties and drawing on cultural practices. This opposition has created an unproductive gap in leadership scholarship. The present article focuses on how to reduce that gap by bridging some of the differences that currently undermine scholarship. The concept of habits is used to support an argument in favour of leadership as a social phenomenon. The main idea is that a social phenomenon involves both social interactions happening in everyday shared knowledge and intentionality that influences agents’ experiences. By borro…
This paper investigated the influence of nano-silica (NS) on the mechanical and transport properties of lightweight concrete (LWC). The resistance of LWC to water and chloride ions penetration was enhanced despite strength marginally increased. Water penetration depth, moisture sorptivity, chloride migration and diffusion coefficient was reduced by 23% and 49%, 23% and 10%, 5% and 0%, 22% and 12% compared to the two reference LWC mixes (pure cement and 60% slag blended cement), respectively with 1% NS. Such improvements were attributed to more compact microstructures because the micropore system was refined and the interface between aggregates and paste was enhanced.
Non-practising entities (NPEs), entities known for building business models solely around the exploitation and enforcement of patents mainly through licensing agreements and sometimes litigation to generate revenues,have become increasingly important actors in the patent litigation
landscape. Yet, what is conspicuous about the NPE phenomenon is that it does not seem to significantly occur in jurisdictions outside of the US. Some NPE activity is found in Europe, albeit on a much lower level than their US counterparts. This may be due to differences between European
and US industries, legal remedies and judicial cultures. It may also be attributed to the current fragmented nature of the European patent landscape. The two-tiered state of national and European patent grant and enforcement systems4 creates a prohibitive patent enforcement environment
for NPEs to operate in, where the multi-jurisdictionaland multi-cultural/language enforcement landscape of country-to-country patent litigation may increase the costs…
The current two-tiered state of national and European patent grant and enforcement procedures creates some limitations for patent enforcement by non-practicing entities (NPEs) in Europe. NPEs, sometimes pejoratively referred to as ‘patent trolls’, are generally considered to be individuals or entities that create business models exclusively focused on the enforcement of patents to generate profits.
The realization of unidirectional acoustic transmission (UAT) has recently aroused great attention owing to the versatile possibility in acoustics-based applications. This paper extends the bi-directional evolutionary structural optimization (BESO) method to the design of phononic crystal (PC) for achieving UAT. The optimization objective is to enlarge the minimum imaginary part of wave vectors along Gamma-X while keep that along Gamma-M less than the constraint value. We systematically studied the design of symmetric and asymmetric PCs at various frequencies. Numerical examples demonstrate that the proposed optimization algorithm is effective for creating the partial band gap at the specified frequency. The UAT with high rectifying efficiency is then successfully realized by placing the optimized PC in a bend wave guide. The results also show that the asymmetric PCs are more favorable for the design of broadband UAT devices compared with symmetric ones.
Abstract not available.
There has been an increasing focus on the development of test methods to evaluate the durability performance of concrete. This paper contributes to this focus by presenting a study that evaluates the effect of water accessible porosity and oven-dry unit weight on the resistance of both normal and light-weight concrete to chloride-ion penetration. Based on the experimental results and regression analyses, empirical models are established to correlate the total charge passed and the chloride migration coefficient with the basic properties of concrete such as water accessible porosity, oven dry unit weight, and compressive strength. These equations can be broadly applied to both normal and lightweight aggregate concretes. The model was also validated by an independent set of experimental results from two different concrete mixtures. The model provides a very good estimate on the concrete's durability performance in respect to the resistance to chloride ion penetration.
The study reports a sustainable solution to enhance concrete durability performance by using recycled glass powder as a supplementary cementitious material. Portland cement was replaced at different contents: 15, 30, 45, and 60% by weight. All concrete mixtures containing glass powder showed lower permeability compared to plain concrete. Particularly, 30% was identified as the optimum replacement for glass powder because the highest compressive strength was achieved. For this replacement, chloride diffusion and migration coefficient, water penetration depth, and sorptivity were found to be reduced by 87, 36, 65, and 61%, respectively. The improvements in those transport properties are attributed to the pozzolanic reaction of glass powder, which turned calcium hydroxide into calcium-silicate-hydrates. The microstructure of the formed cement paste and interfacial transition zone is refined and less porous, and therefore more resistant to ingress of harmful fluids and agents.
We investigate the Tully-Fisher relation (TFR) for a morphologically and kinematically diverse sample of galaxies from the Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) Galaxy Survey using two-dimensional spatially resolved Ha velocity maps and find a well-defined relation across the stellar mass range of 8.0 < log (M*/M-circle dot) < 11.5. We use an adaptation of kinemetry to parametrize the kinematic Ha asymmetry of all galaxies in the sample, and find a correlation between scatter (i.e. residuals off the TFR) and asymmetry. This effect is pronounced at low stellar mass, corresponding to the inverse relationship between stellar mass and kinematic asymmetry found in previous work. For galaxies with log (M*/M-circle dot) < 9.5, 25 +/- 3 per cent are scattered below the root mean square (RMS) of the TFR, whereas for galaxies with log (M*/M-circle dot) > 9.5 the fraction is 10 +/- 1 per cent. We use 'simulated slits' to directly compare our results with those from long slit spectroscopy and find th…