Photonic crystals are periodic microstructures composed of two or more materials with different electromagnetic properties. They can modulate light waves with specific wavelengths and generate unusual optical phenomena. The property of photonic crystals relies on the spatial distribution of material. This study develops a topology optimization approach to systematically design the microstructure of photonic crystals. Innovative 2D and 3D photonic crystal designs with maximized photonic band gaps, complete band gaps and, all-angle negative refraction ranges are obtained, the connection between their geometry characteristics and physical properties are analyzed.
The focus of this research was to investigate the effects of diet and exercise interventions on cognition and health in older individuals, living independently. The outcomes suggest that diet quality is associated with faster cognitive processing, once medication use had been taken into account. Secondly, increased adherence to a Mediterranean diet combined with more exercise, over the 6 month intervention period improved memory and mood. This research has supported the proposition that by maintaining a healthier lifestyle, there is potential to improve cognition and mood in an ageing population with the potential to minimise the impact of dementia.
The increase in the average Earth temperature, also known as Global warming, has accelerated the retreat of Arctic sea ice cover and created large areas of open water, making new sailing routes available through Polar Regions. It is therefore important to investigate how ocean waves change when they interact with sea ice, in order to improve wave-forecasting models in ice-covered regions. Experimental and numerical tests are carried out in this thesis to evaluate wave reflection and transmission operated by ice floes.
This thesis examines whether black comedy still lampoons influential institutions and probes social mores with sharp satire and strong language or simply aims to offend for its own sake. It questions whether the freedom of speech that comedians in the 1960s advocated to defend their social and political subversion is now assumed, as a right, by comedians for the less edifying practice of humiliating people and targeting the vulnerable.
The thesis established a scale to measure the Japanese concept of self, based on traditional Japanese self-concept theories. Statements from these theories were developed into a self-report questionnaire which was administered to 500 Japanese participants. Exploratory factor analysis produced four factors: lnterpersonal Anxiety, Harmony, Self-Centredness, and connectedness. A second questionnaire using this scale was administered to both Japanese and Australian participants for validation and comparison. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the scale structure and comparison with existing widely used measures validated its content. The scale presents opportunities for scholars to compare the Japanese concept of self with a wide variety of behaviours.
I identify a population of singly ionised Magnesium absorbers which most likely trace the halos hosting a population of numerous and faint galaxies whose brightness lies below the current detection limit of existing telescopes. I present full population statistics of the triply ionised Carbon (CIV) and Silicon ions during the second billion years of cosmological evolution of the Universe. I find that a significant fraction of CIV is held in systems which are most likely tracing a multi-phase medium where hot and cold gas is mixing at the interface between the circumgalactic and intergalactic mediums.
This dissertation examines three Australian nationalists of the interwar period: 'Inky' Stephensen, Rex Ingamells and Xavier Herbert, each of whom sought to establish settler Australia's national cultural independence through novel — and problematic — engagements with Indigenous tropes. The thesis proposes a reinterpretation of their efforts and of Australian settler nationalism in the 1930s and, in so doing, offers an original interpretation of Australian literary and political culture in the interwar period. These reflections are relevant to contemporary debates concerning the proper relationship between settlers and Indigenous peoples in Australia, and in particular the position of Indigenous peoples within the national community.
This thesis considers compartmental models to investigate the spread of three vector-borne diseases: malaria, Zika and Dengue. Each of these diseases is transmitted by Mosquitoes, and have resulted in the loss of millions of lives. The aim of this study is to understand the dynamics of these vector diseases through the use of models. Only once the dynamics of the transmission of such diseases is understood can control strategies be effectively employed. In this study, a series of numerical simulations are adapted to examining how the diffusion of human and mosquitoes populations affect the transmission of these diseases.
Texturation of material interfaces provides a purely topological mechanism for altering the way a given object interacts with a range of physical phenomena, defined by the relative length-scales of surface features to those of the relevant effects. To this end, propagation control over the nanoscale wavelengths of visible light requires similarly small structural features. This work describes development of methods and techniques for the creation of effective and affordable nanotextured surfaces exhibiting a range of optical functionalities, including anti-reflectance of black silicon semiconductors, bio-compatible silk natural polymer photonic structures, as well as rough noble metal surface-enhanced optical sensing.
A majority of individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia experience cognitive difficulties, which are, in turn, a strong predictor of future persisting disability. Cognitive remediation therapy is moderately effective in strengthening cognitive skills, however not everyone realises a cognitive benefit. The overarching goal of this thesis was to arrive at a better understanding of factors that influence individual response to, and the efficacy of, cognitive remediation therapy in people diagnosed with schizophrenia. By providing greater transparency of factors that influence outcome, the research outcomes have the potential to inform clinical treatment planning and practice, optimising the likelihood of a positive treatment response.