Perpetrators of criminal acts can abuse their power to cover up their crime – this is one manifestation of corruption. As a result, the suffering experienced by victims can be extensive. In recent times, victims are able to expose such corrupt behaviour and seek help from others through social media. This study explored how social media can be used as a powerful vehicle to mobilise “pseudo-bystanders” to support victims of corruption. The findings inform how collective action can be encouraged, showing how victims can influence passive witnesses to become active supporters/warriors. The findings also contribute methodologically to qualitative netnographic research.
On-demand structure design is the key challenge confronted by the artificial structures. In this thesis we investigate on designing periodic complex media for photonics and phononics structures. The objective of the research is to explore the unit-cell design and optimization of photonic/phononic materials in two-dimensions for a broad range of applications. We explore the general features that give rise to band gaps and unusual diffraction for classical waves. Particularly, we address the analytical structure design method to control classical wave propagation in periodic systems. The findings enable progress in engineering of photons and phonons in both fundamental and applied aspects.
As the demands of modern astronomical instruments and computer simulations continue to grow, the capability of the local desktop computer is being noticeably outpaced. This research investigates solutions to two key challenges facing astronomers. The first is the need to inspect Gigapixel astronomical imagery at native resolution, which can be achieved on ultra-high resolution displays, and the combination of visualisation technologies forming a display ecology. The second is the need to store and process data that significantly exceeds the capacity and processing capability of the desktop computer, by harnessing the power of high-end graphics cards in a virtual cloud desktop.
Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKIs) are small molecules that show anti-proliferative activity against cancer cells. An understanding of the structure of how a new TKI behaves in solution and when bound to its target tyrosine kinase is crucial for further drug development. However, existing approaches such as x-ray crystallography require specialized equipment and/or restrictive conditions that obviate structure determination. Therefore, in our study, we propose an alternative approach which combines ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy with high level computational chemistry to explore electronic and structural changes encountered upon modulating micro- and macro-environment of two tyrosine kinase inhibitors AG1478 and SKF86002.
The PhD thesis has been devoted to developing a reliable topology optimisation algorithm for designing the microstructures of phononic crystals with desirable functionalities. The outcomes of the research promise a wide range of applications in manipulating the propagation of sound and elastic waves in materials and structures, such as sound filters, waveguides, resonant cavities, super lens as well as acoustic cloaking devices. The proposed methodology can be readily and easily extended to design various lightweight materials and structures with novel sound and vibration properties in civil and mechanical engineering.
Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) is a psychological disorder characterised by an intense preoccupation with one or more perceived flaws in physical appearance. Despite the distress and impairment associated with this disorder it remains understudied and poorly understood. This thesis employed quantitative and qualitative research methods across three studies to investigate neurocognitive and psychological factors involved in the development and maintenance of the disorder. A specific pattern of cognitive deficits were identified in BDD affecting executive function, visual information processing and visual memory. Qualitative results suggest shame, intolerance of uncertainty and ‘not just right experiences’ are key constructs requiring further attention.
This thesis examines the food traditions of 31 people from diverse backgrounds who live in Brunswick, Victoria. It argues, in contrast to some current sociological projections that see modern food systems eroding traditions, that many culinary traditions remain important in contemporary societies. The empirical data provides important insights into the various roles culinary traditions play for both collective and individual identity. It also shows that culinary traditions are not static and often undergo profound transformations. This brings an additional benefit to our understanding of the way intercultural interactions take place in everyday contexts in multicultural contexts.
Recently, techniques and devices using plasmonic nanoparticles have increasingly merged into a wide range of applications. However, until present a non-destructive characterization of plasmonic random media (PRM) via optical methods is still absent. Under this background, we studied how the randomness of particle properties (e.g. particle orientation, compartmentalization and aggregation status) in a PRM affects the collective optical response of the media. In our study, we found that the precision of Image Correlation Spectroscopy (ICS) is highly sensitive to the distribution of particle characteristics. In this thesis, we demonstrate our new optical characterization method which allow us to indicate the properties of particles embedded in a PRM by using the percentage ratio between manually counted and ICS calculated particle density.
Natural disasters like floods have become more frequent due to the increase of extreme climatic events. It is very challenging to understand the hydrological impacts of urban developments in ungauged watersheds. The studied floodplains are in the northern coastline of Sao Paulo, Brazil, comprising limited and non-representative spatially and temporally data. Thus, alternative methods and modelling techniques, such as the multicriteria decision analysis, were used to determine the likelihood of flood susceptibility in the studied plains. The methodology was successful and might be used in other areas, especially where data is scarce and complex physical constraints are involved.
Neolamarckia cadamba (N. cadamba) is an indigenous timber tree species that was selected to rehabilitate degraded forest lands in Sarawak. Application of chemical fertilisers in forest rehabilitation is a standard practice. However, negative impacts of chemical fertilisers on environments and human health are always raised up as public concerns. Plant growth enhancing microorganisms found in the rhizospheres could be an environmental-friendly alternative to support growth of N. cadamba on degraded forest lands. They could be formulated into commercial biofertilisers to reduce usage of chemical fertilisers in the future forest rehabilitation activities.